Appropriate Technology Strategies
for Rural Water Development
After the Decade


1. Rotival, Alexander: Beyond the Decade: A framework for Global Co-operation. UNDP Source. Sept. '89

2. Progress in the Implementation of the Mar Del Plata Action Plan. Water Resource Journal, Sept. 1986. United Nations. New York, 1986

3. Watters, Gregor: The Decade at Half-Time. World Health. December, 1986 World Health Organization

4. Saunders, Robert J., and Warford, Jeremy J.: Village Water Supply. World Bank. John Hopkins University Press 1976
"Another difficulty is that estimates of the percentage of the population served seem too high, appearing in some cases to be as much as 30 percent in error." (Page 9)

5. Ghana Five Year Development Plan 1982-1986 Accra, 1981.
Ghana was able to increase their statistics through "population (migration) increases in areas already assumed to have a water supply", although the Water Ministry acknowledges that the systems were unlikely to be able to handle the increased pressure.

6. International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade: A Mid-Decade Review. Water Resources Journal Sept 1987 United Nations. New York, 1987

7.  Watters, Ibid

8.  Saunders. Ibid (Page 19-20)

9.  Abel Wolman in Strategies for Extending and Improving Rural Water Supplies... PAHO Scientific Publication No. 390. Washington, D.C. 1979

10. Saunders. Ibid
However, this is matching system for system, without considering the many rural technology factors to be discussed later in the paper.

11.  Ibid

12.  Saunders. Ibid

13.  McGarry, M.G.: Matching Water Supply Technology to the Needs and Resources of Developing Countries Natural Resources Forum. Vol. 11, No. 22. United Nations. New York. 1987

14.  White, Alastair: Community Participation in Water and Sanitation WHO Technical Paper No. 17. The Hague. 1981

15. Ghana Five Year Development Plan... Ibid.

16.  White, Gilbert F., Bradley, David J., White, Anne U.: Drawers of Water: Domestic Water Use in East Africa University of Chicago Press. Chicago 1972

17.  Saunders. Ibid

18.  Everybody.
("Yo!?" You ask, " What kind of reference is that?" Most authors I reviewed gave generous lip service to the idea of appropriate technology, but few had many hard and fast examples of what constituted AT. Some authors evaded the issue by bowing out (i.e. "The well making techniques are well known so we won't cover them here..."), some recounted the many tales of mass participation in pipe laying schemes, others spoke about the "incredible progress in handpumps", but few could cite specific examples of technologies which would produce the most costly portion of the well: the hole in the ground.)

19.  A Review of the U.N. Ground-Water Exploration and Development Programme in the Developing Countries, 1962-1977 United Nations Department of Technical Co-operation for Development Natural Resources/Water Series No.7 United Nations. New York. 1979

20. Ground Water in North and West Africa UN Department of Technical Co-operation for Development and Economic Commission for Africa. Natural Resources/Water Series No.18 New York. 1988

21.  Brantley,J.E.: History of Oil Well Drilling Gulf Publishing Co. 1971

22.  Blankwaardt, Bob: Hand Drilled Wells Rwegarilila Water Resources Institute. Dar es Salaam. Tanzania 1984

23.  Appropriate Well Drilling Technologies: A Manual for Developing Countries National Water Well Association (U.S.) For USAID. Washington, D.C. 1978

24.  Blankwaardt. Ibid.

25.  Bourne, Peter G.: Wind mills and handpumps were disdained by villagers and government alike in Nigeria.